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New Testament Background

INSCRIPTIONS ANCIENT HISTORIANS NON-LITERARY
WRITINGS
NT ARCHAEOLOGY NT COMMENTARIES ONLINE
  1. Inscriptions (Epigraphy)

    1. Acts of Augustus (Res Gestae Divi Augustus) Latin, Greek, & English in parallel columns
    2. Secular Games of 17 BCE Latin text | English text
  1. History
    1. Modern histories
      1. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon (1782, rev. 1845)  vol. 1 | vol. 2 | vol. 3 | vol. 4 | vol. 5 | vol. 6
      2. De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors)
      3. Greek and Roman Cities of Western Turkey by Michael Greenhalgh
      4. Outlines of Roman History by William C. Morey (1901)
      5. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries by Rodolfo Lanciani (12th ed., 1898)
      6. The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia by William M. Ramsay (1904)
      7. A History of Roman Literature: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Marcus Aurelius by Charles Thomas Cruttwell (1877)
      8. Ancient Rome From the Earliest Times Down to 476 B.C. by Robert Pennell (1891) (4.6Mb)
      9. Jerusalem: Topography, Economics, and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70 by George Adam Smith (1909)
      10. A Smaller History of Greece from the earliest times to the Roman conquest by William Smith (1897)
      11. Private Life of the Romans (1903, 1932) by Harold Johnston, rev. by Mary Johnston
    2. Ancient histories
      1. Herodotus -- The Histories (covering roughly 700–475 BCE)
        1. Greek text (you will have to configure the display)
        2. English text (scholarly version, with commentaries & notes)
        3. English text (quick-reading version)
      2. Xenophon -- Anabasis (covering 379–371 BCE)
        1. Greek text (you will have to configure the display)
        2. English text
      3. Polybius
        1. The Histories or The Rise of the Roman Empire (in Greek and English, covers c. 220-146 BCE)
        2. Intro. to Polybius
      4. Josephus (37 - after 100 CE)
        1. Extant writings of Josephus (Whiston transl.)
        2. Greek text (with parallel Whiston translation):
      5. Geography of Strabo (c. 64 BCE - 24 CE) Greek text | English text
      6. Pausanias's Description of GreeceGreek text | English text  | biography of Pausanias (115-180 CE)
      7. Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE) History of Rome – Latin text | Eng. transl.
      8. Plutarch
        1. Alexander
        2. Pompey
        3. Caesar
        4. Brutus
        5. Antony
        6. Cicero
        7. Crassus
        8. Galba
        9. Otho
      9. Suetonius (c. A.D. 69 - after 122)   The Twelve Caesars
        1. Julius Caesar  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        2. Augustus (Octavian)  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        3. Tiberius  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        4. Gaius (Caligula)  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        5. Claudius  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        6. Nero  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        7. Galba  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        8. Otho  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        9. Vitellius  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        10. Vespasian  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        11. Titus  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        12. Domitian  Latin text | Eng. transl. [TOP]
      10. Tacitus (c. A.D. 55 - 117 or later
        1. History  Latin text | Eng. transl.
        2. Annals  Latin text | Engl. transl.  [TOP]
      11. Dio Cassius (c. A.D. 160 - 230)  Roman History
  2. Non-literary writings
    1. Babatha (The Yadin Papyri)
      1. Intro. to Babatha
      2. Contract for a date crop (Greek text with Eng. transl.)
      3. Deposition regarding orphan's legacy (Greek text with Eng. transl.)
      4. Babatha and the ancient role of women
      5. Marriage Contract for Shelamzion and Judah (Greek text with Eng. transl.)
    2.  
  3. Searchable database of images
  4. New Testament archaeological sites
    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WXYZ

    1. Alexandria  Bible Atlas from Space | Egyptian report | French report
    2. Amphipolis  culture | history
    3. Andramyttium
    4. Antioch of Pisidia  1924 excavation | Recent excavations | photos | history
    5. Antioch of Syria (modern Antakya, Turkey)  history
    6. Antipatris (OT Aphek)
    7. Apollonia
    8. Assos  history | photos
    9. Athens
      1. Bible Atlas from Space
      2. history
      3. Acropolis Museum | Photo tour
      4. Agora--Greek
      5. Agora--Roman
      6. Areopagus (Mars Hill)
      7. Stadium  [TOP]
    10. Attalia
    11. Azotus (OT Ashdod)
    12. Beroea (modern Veria, Greece)
    13. Bethany (modern El-Azariyeh, Israel) – History | Tomb of Lazarus
    14. Bethlehem (in Judea, see OT arch.) | Church of the Nativity | Photo tour of Church of the Nativity
    15. Bethsaida
    16. Caesarea Maritima  photos | field report of 1997 excavation
    17. Caesarea Philippi
    18. Cana  Archaeology of Cana (near Nazareth) | Alternate site in Lebanon (near Tyre)
    19. Capernaum
    20. Cenchreae
    21. Chorazin
    22. Colossae  photos | history
    23. Corinth  history | Corinth Computer Project
    24. Cos
    25. Damascus  History | Photos
    26. Derbe
    27. Emmaus
    28. Ephesus  history
    29. Fair HavensCrete in Hellenistic times | Crete in Roman times
    30. Gadara
    31. Gaza – History | Photos of current situation
    32. Gerasa (in Decapolis, OT Jerash)  History | B&W Photos | Gallery of color photos
    33. Herculaneum  Bible Atlas from Space | Herculaneum | Herculaneum papyri | 360#176; tour
    34. Herodium
    35. Hierapolis  history
    36. Iconium (modern Konya, Turkey)  history
    37. Isthmia  U. of Chicago excavation | OSU excavation | Archaeological Museum at Isthmia
    38. Jerash (see "Gerasa")
    39. Jericho – History | Photos
    40. First-Century Jerusalem (see OT arch.)
      1. Second Temple panoramas based on 3-D digital model
      2. Time of Christ  Model at Holiland Hotel (Vitrual Tour) |; Garden Tomb | Church of the Holy Sepulcher | Mt. of Olives
      3. Destruction by Titus (A.D. 70) | Arch of Titus
    41. Joppa – Current excavation
    42. Jordan, Survey of sites in
    43. Kerioth
    44. Laodicea  history
    45. Lydda (OT Lod, modern Lod, Israel)
    46. Lystra
    47. Machaerus
    48. Magdala
    49. Malta  History of Malta | Discovery of artifacts from Paul's shipwreck | Discussion of Paul's shipwreck
    50. Masada | Photo & diagram
    51. Miletus | Theatre at Miletus
    52. Myra | Photos
    53. Nain
    54. Nazareth | excavation
    55. Neapolis (in Macedonia) | Tourist info.
    56. Paphos | history
    57. Patara
    58. Patmos Bible Atlas from Space | Tour info.
    59. Pella | Archaeology
    60. Perga | photos
    61. Pergamum | Altar of Zeus (close-ups, text in German) | Tour of site
    62. Petra | Archaeology
    63. Philadelphia (in province of Asia, modern Alasehir, Turkey)
    64. Philadelphia (in Decapolis, OT Rabbah, modern Amman, capital of Jordan)
    65. Philippi | Tour info.
    66. Pompeii
      1. Bible Atlas from Space
      2. Pompeii supersite
      3. Pompeii Forum Project
      4. Eyewitness account of Pompeii's destruction | Ancient Responstruction of Pompeii Forum
    67. Ptolemais (OT Acco)
    68. Puteoli
    69. Rhodes
    70. Rome
      1. Bible Atlas from Space
      2. Ancient Rome From the Earliest Times Down to 476 B.C. by Robert Pennell (1891) (4.6 Mb)
      3. Virtual Rome (360° images)
      4. Another Virtual Rome
      5. Model of ancient Rome
    71. Salamis
    72. Sardis – History | Archaeology | Sardis synagogue
    73. Scythopolis (OT Beth Shean)
    74. Sea of Galilee  Cove of the Sower | photos
    75. Sebaste (OT Samaria)  History
    76. Seleucia | history
    77. Sepphoris (OT Zippori)  Official Sepphoris website | Jesus & the Forgotten City (book on Sepphoris)
    78. Sidon  History with photos | Archaeology of Sidon
    79. Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey)  history | Photos
    80. Sychar
    81. Syracuse (Sicily)
    82. Tarsus  History | Photos
    83. Thessalonica – Intro. | Archaeological Museum
    84. Thyatira (modern Akhisar, Turkey)  Intro. | Photos | Archaeological Finds
    85. Tiberias
    86. Troas  History | Photos
    87. Tyre | Alexander's siege of Tyre (332 BCE) | History of Phoenicia by George Rawlinson (1889) | "Geoarchaeology of Tyre's ancient north harbour" (2005)   [TOP]
  5. New Testament Commentaries online
    1. Whole New Testament (Matthew - Revelation)
    2. Four Gospels (Matthew - John)
    3. Book of Acts (Acts of the Apostles)
    4. Pauline Epistles (Romans - Philemon)
    5. General Epistles (Hebrews - Jude)
    6. Book of Revelation (The Apocalypse)

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